Ken Krechmer’s papers are divided into Measurement and Isology studies. Isology studies are further subdivided into applications and theory. Each group of studies is listed chronologically.

### Measurement Papers

To establish a rigorous basis for the study of Isology, these papers formalize standards and reference scales in a measurement system. Click where indicated to read further.

## Measurement Unification” was published by the journal Measurement, Volume 182, September 2021, article #109625.

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• J. C. Maxwell recognized that a numerical value and a quantity are the form of all measurement results.

• The Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments identify that the numerical value and quantity are independent.

• All measurements are numerical value comparisons which require equal quantities.

• Establishing equal quantities requires equalization by calibration.

• Including calibration explains the Schrödinger’s Cat experiment.

## Quantum entanglement is explained in classic terms” is a 600 word paper published in ScienceX, August 17, 2021.

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## “Schrödinger’s Cat Explained“, a 1000 word paper, was published in Science X June 17, 2020.

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In 1935, E. Schrödinger proposed his well-known cat thought experiment suggesting, but not explaining, how a measurement transforms the probable states of an atom into the actual state of a cat (alive or dead). Rather than applying quantum mechanics (the previous approach usually taken), this paper presents an out-of-the-box, logically consistent explanation using metrology (the science of physical measurement).

## The non-local nature of a measurement“, is published in *Results in Physics*, Volume 12, March 2019, Pages 403-404.

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## “Relative Measurement Theory: The unification of experimental and theoretical measurements” is published in *Measurement*, Volume 116, February 2018, Pages 77–82.

Download 2018 PDF *Measurement* version from this link

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A previous version,“Relational Measurements and Uncertainty”, was published in *Measurement*, Vol 93, Nov. 2016, pages 36-40.

Download 2016 PDF Measurement version from this link.

In representational measurement theory, the current theory of all measurements, calibration and sampling processes are assumed to be a linear transformation of the coordinate system, of no effect. In this paper calibration and sampling are shown to be independent non-linear processes which do change measurement results. Relational measurement theory is developed to include calibration and sampling. The measurement changes caused by calibration and sampling are proven to be equal to the quantum measurement disturbance described by the universal uncertainty relation which has been verified by experiments. Therefore relational measurement theory explains the measurement disturbance in quantum mechanics.