Ken Krechmer’s Papers

  • Measurement Unification” was published by the journal Measurement, Volume 182, September 2021, article #109625.
  • Rationale:
    • J. C. Maxwell recognized that a numerical value and a quantity are the form of all measurement results.
    • The Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments identify that the numerical value and quantity are independent.
    • All measurements are numerical value comparisons which require equal quantities.
    • Establishing equal quantities requires equalization by calibration.
    • Including calibration explains the Schrödinger’s Cat experiment.

  • Quantum entanglement is explained in classic terms” is a 600 word paper published in ScienceX, August 17, 2021. 
  • In many quantum measurement experiments and thought experiments, measurement results appear that do not seem to have classic explanations. As example: In quantum particle spin experiments, entangled particles appear to interact instantly across distances; and in interferometer experiments, one measurement result appears to be split over two paths. Currently, these measurement phenomena are treated as unique to quantum mechanics and not understandable in classic physics. Recognizing calibration in theory explains and resolves all the differences that appear to occur between classic and quantum measurements.

  • The Role of Technical Standards in Enabling the Future“, an invited paper, was published February 2021 in the 50th anniversary issue of The Bridge, a US journal of the National Academy of Engineering.
    The following link provides the PDF version: The Role of Technical Standards in Enabling the Future.
    The history of civilization from hunter-gatherer, agrarian, city states, manufacturing, information age, to the internet age may be identified by the successions of technical references/standards that are developed—symbols, measurements, designs, similarity, compatibility, and adaptability. Each new succession results in a paradigm change, enabling increased value creation: bartering, counting and measuring, building, manufacturing, networks, and openness. Standards successions offer an evolutionary technology model, showing why and how market control occurs and where new value is created. By extension this evolutionary model also suggests ideas for the future.
  • Schrödinger’s Cat Explained“, a 1000 word paper, was published in Science X June 17, 2020 .
    The following link for the PDF version: ScienceXSchrodingercat.
    In 1935, E. Schrödinger proposed his well-known cat thought experiment suggesting, but not explaining, how a measurement transforms the probable states of an atom into the actual state of a cat (alive or dead). Rather than applying quantum mechanics (the previous approach usually taken), this paper presents an out-of-the-box, logically consistent explanation using metrology (the science of physical measurement).
  • The non-local nature of a measurement“, is published in Results in Physics, Volume 12, March 2019, Pages 403-404.  This short paper identifies that the concept of a local measurement is always violated by a necessary metrological process – calibration. J. S. Bell’s formal development of the same violation demonstrates that the EPR paradox and related discontinuities may be resolved by including the calibration process in a measurement process, as formalized in Measurement, February 2018 “Relative Measurement Theory”.

  • “Relative Measurement Theory: The unification of experimental and theoretical measurements” is published in Measurement, Volume 116, February 2018, Pages 77–82.
    Download 2018 PDF Measurement version from this link
    The discontinuous, non-causal and instantaneous changes due to a measurement that appear in quantum mechanics (QM) theory are not consistent with a classical understanding of physical reality, but are completely confirmed by experiments. Relative measurement theory explains why. This paper presents the first formal development of an experimental measurement which includes the uncertainty due to calibration and resolution. The uncertainty due to calibration and resolution, previously considered experimental artifacts, is shown to be equal to the uncertainty that appears in QM theory and experiment. When the calibration to a reference and resolution effects are considered, all the QM measurement discontinuities are consistent with classical explanations.

    A previous version,“Relational Measurements and Uncertainty”, was published in Measurement, Vol 93, Nov. 2016, pages 36-40.
    Download 2016 PDF Measurement version from this link.

  • “Cloud computing standardization” was submitted to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) – IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) Challenge 2012. This paper received first prize, and was presented in Oslo, Norway, October 5, 2012. It has been published in How does electrotechnology impact economic, social and environmental development? Winning papers from the IEC-IEEE Challenge 2012, p. 15-25, Geneva, Switzerland. Copyright by the IEC, Geneva, Switzerland. All rights reserved. It is reproduced here with permission. Further information on the IEC is available from
  • “Quantifing Adaptability” was presented at ADAPTIVE 2010, The Second International Conference on Adaptive and Self-adaptive Systems and Applications, November 25, 2010 in Lisbon, Portugal, and received the Best Paper Award.
  • “The Entrepreneur and Standards” was originally submitted to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) as part of the IEC Centenary Challenge 2006, organized in association with “The Economist”, and in partnership with the IEEE, the IET and VDE. This paper received the joint second prize on December 14, 2006. It has been published in International Standardization as a Strategic Tool: Commended Papers from the IEC Centenary Challenge 2006, p. 143-154. Geneva, Switzerland: International Electrotechnical Commission. It is copyright by the IEC, Geneva, Switzerland. All rights reserved. It is reproduced here with their permission. Further information on the IEC and the IEC Centenary Challenge is available from
  • Modeling System Variation was presented at the International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics (ICINCO) 2005 in Barcelona, Spain September 15, 2005.
  • Face the FACS (Formal worldwide, regional and national Agencies for Communications Standardization), paper presented at the Third IEEE Conference on Standardization and Innovation in Information Technology (SIIT 2003), October 22, 2003, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands. In SIIT 2003 Proceedings, p. 141-148.